Logic is all about proving things through the proper use of arguments. An argument is a group of statements, one or more, which claim to provide support for or reasons to believe the argument (the conclusion). An argument consists of two essential parts: a Claim (or conclusion) and support (or premises) for the claim in the form of reasons, evidence, or facts.
For the conclusion of an argument to be adequately supported, all premises must be true, and the argument must employ correct reasoning in using them.
In a sound argument, the premises must support the conclusion in five different ways including:
1. True Support: all premises must be factually true or intellectually acceptable.
2. Relevant Support: the premises must be connected, readily applicable, or pertinent to the conclusion.
3. Adequate Support: the premises must provide enough support “sufficient in number, kind, and weight” to justify the conclusion.
4. Clear Support: the premises must possess essential clarity of thought and expression, thus avoiding vagueness (being blurred or fuzzy), ambiguity (multiple meanings), and grammatical error.
5. Knowledgeable Support: the premises must qualify as knowledge (warranted, true belief) while avoiding unwarranted presumption.